Continueing studies on Human factor

The 5th meeting of the Eurasian Working Group “Security. The human factor» took place on October 25, 2018 in Moscow (Crocus Expo). The meeting continued the diologue that is carried out in the region about making the human factor a significant concern in transport companies' organisation, management and communication.  The attention to poeple puts  overall  safety level on a much higher level changing the business culture to the culture of service excellence.

Opening the meeting Yussup KHASSIEV, head of the UITP offices in Moscow and Astana, stressed the importance and uniqueness of the topic the group is studying. The analysis of management techniques to minimize accidents happening due to human factor are not conducted systematically, companies are trying to organize the work with human factor themselves depending on the country specifics. The first attempt was undertaken this year with Knowledge Brief on human factor prepared by UITP Regional and Suburban Railways Committee.

Igor NOVIKOV, Chairman of UITP working group "Security. The human factor” is sure that introduction of Swedish experience with infrastructural changes and passive safety systems (speed limit, safety locks, helmets, roads with roundabouts, split band, etc.) is not sufficient to provide the required social risk reduction for road safety. The recent Road Safety Strategy for 2018-2024 is putting the aim of reduction 3.2 times over 7 years and achieving zero accident mortality rate before 2030.

One of the important tasks of the working group is to raise awareness of the transport community about effective, proven and applied methods and practices that help to reduce the risks of human factor.

Alexander KHODAKOV, first Deputy head of the Moscow Centre for Road Traffic Management, stressed that Moscow reasonably turned into the safest city in Russia today – the social risk index is at the level of 3.9 deaths per 100 thousand population (for comparison, the average social risk index in the EU is 5 people per 100 thousand population). For the last 7 years the number of deaths in road accidents decreased by 36%. The Centre introduced a wide range of technical means to monitor and adjust the behaviour of drivers on the roads, to fix traffic violations: cameras, road signs, detectors, stationary complexes photo and video fixation, as well as to monitor faults and problems of road transport infrastructure and to help drivers in accidents. All data are promptly received in the situation centre, where they are analysed and, if necessary, measures are taken to correct the traffic situation. This aspect of human factor control in traffic management provides a significant reduction in road congestion (by 25% in 7 years).

Anton ZHIDKOV, Executive Secretary of the Interdepartmental Transport Commission of St. Petersburg - chief specialist of the Department of control and transport safety of the Transport Committee of the Government of St. Petersburg, noted that the risks of the human factor on the roads of St. Petersburg  are significantly increased by illegal operators. Illegals do not carry out pre-trip control, do not conduct professional selection, as well as do not control the technical condition of vehicles. Only joint efforts of all transport actors lead to the significant decrease of illegal operations (3 times in 3 years).

Dmitry PANFILOV, head of the administration for technical control and video analytics of Traffic Safety and Technical Control Department of "Passazhiravtotrans"(bus operator of St. Petersburg) has shared the experience of regular pre-trip monitoring and analysis of the functional state of drivers by means of system "ASPO" (automated pre-shift examination), video-monitoring of drivers behavior on route (control of Smoking, mobile phone, etc.). In addition, “Passazhiravtotrans” organized close cooperation between medical unit and pre-trip control service. Together they carry out all complex of medical services in conjunction with tests for professional illnesses, identification of risk groups with emphasis on identification of diseases at early stages.

Sergey PETUKHOV, head of the Traffic Safety Service at MOSGORTRANS, believes that complex vehicle’s branding of all legal public transport in Moscow became an effective mean of combating illegal carriers. It also works for promotion of public transport among citizens and for raising awareness about services of legal carriers that provide traffic safety, including human factor risk control.

Mosgortrans uses the following measures for prevention accidents caused by human factor:

- Monitoring of the functional status of drivers with their split into 4 main groups (the risks of cardiovascular disease, the risks of cardiovascular events, fatigue, stress). Monitoring is carried out only by automated system of pre-shift examinations - tonometry that  measure only pressure and pulse  is not sufficient to identify dangerous conditions;

- Screening for drug intoxication (regular checks of all drivers on secret schedules with the use of specialized containers for the biological samples collection, allowing to identify post-drug use).

As a result, the number of road accidents with victims caused by public transport drivers has been halved and this figure continues to decline.

Evgeny VLASOV, Deputy chief auditor for traffic safety of St. Petersburg State Unitary Enterprise "Gorelektrotrans presented the process of accidents analysis with elaborated measures to prevent accidents with victims and with fatalities". The system starts with passengers with  warning labels, audio and video information, etc. and continues with drivers: professional selection, psychological testing, professional development, online control of work on the line (speed mode, video, telemetry), awards for trouble-free operation, etc.

Marina ZUBKOVA, senior inspector of the Department of medical safety on trains of the Central Directorate of Health of JSC "Russian Railways", spoke about the pilot project for the organization of remote health monitoring on the basis of pre-trip medical examinations using telemedicine technologies. The pilot project was recognized as positive, but cannot yet be expanded, due to the absence of law regulation.

Maxim RYUKHIN, Executive Director of NPP "System technologies", made an overview of new hardware and software capabilities based on the methods of variation pulsometry for identifying the risk of dangerous functional conditions (including early diagnosis of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular disaster risks).

The automated system of pre-shift control as well as automatic system of dynamic control with online monitoring of the functional state differ from the devices of video tracking of the face, blinking frequency, control of electrical resistance of the skin. The main difference is that these systems make possible to prevent a dangerous situation, to prevent the development of the disease, long before sudden deterioration of health, and not after falling asleep, not at the time of slumber, not when the disease has already passed into the chronic phase.

Vladimir KRYLOV, chief specialist of the Centre of development of "Peterburgskiy Metropoliten" (St.Petersburg), explained the system of safety management in the metro that is based on the concept of a three-level scale of risk: unacceptable, acceptable, and negligible. To predict the occurrence of an unacceptable level of risk, the Heinrich scale is used. For in-depth and more targeted work with risks, it is proposed to classify them into categories of safety (human impact), infrastructure reliability and financial losses.

St. Petersburg metro has prepared the Personnel Policy of the enterprise, that describes corporate values, principles of corporate culture and corporate competence. It is planned to publish a similar corporate standard on traffic safety in 2019, which will include aspects of the human factor.

Online monitoring of the functional state is introduces on two lines of metro and there are plans to expand it. The system proved to be excellent in terms of solving the problem of maintaining drivers in optimal working condition, as well as preventing the risks of loss of attention, falling asleep, stress in advance, ensuring the interaction of the driver and the driver-instructor.

Sergey MIKHAILOV, Deputy chief auditor for traffic safety of "Moscow Metro", spoke about the identifying the shortcomings in the system of actual registration  accidents causes. According to statistics, violations due to the human factor are often attributed to technical or external causes, which leads to a cognitive gap between the primary and indirect causes of the incident. Therefore, the rules of work with the risks of the human factor needs to be revised.

Anna ZAKREVSKAYA, leading researcher at the laboratory of psychological selection, correction and management of the functional state of "Scientific Clinical Center" of JSC "Russian Railways", presented the results of the study on the tendency to the formation of dependent behaviour. The study identified,  as the most common, addiction for work, love and tobacco, as well as dependence on a healthy lifestyle. It is also noted that employees with a high level of adaptive abilities, high motivation, high level of personal maturity are less prone to the dependent behaviour. The reduced level of neuropsychological stability, low behaviour normativity highly can accompany the development of addictive behaviour. At the same time, the absence of "bad habits" does not guarantee the absence of a tendency to dependent behaviour, since its appearance can vary.

Vasily SERIKOV, head of the laboratory of physiology and preventive ergonomics, of the Research Institute of Labor Medicine named after. academician Izmerov, spoke about the study of the intensity of indicators of sensory loads for  civil aviation aircraft flight crews members. On average, the cabin crew performs 2796 different actions and operations during the flight shift, observing more than 30 production facilities simultaneously, with a density of perceived different signals and messages 466 for 1 hour of operation, which exceeds 1.5 times the maximum values of sensory loads established by regulatory documents. Thus, the functional price of overloading of pilots sensors is incredibly high. The increase of erroneous actions risks due to poor health can be much higher (for example, the level of systolic blood pressure in vertical flight in pilots can reach 180 a rate of 120 mm.), while the functional state returns to normal only on the 4th day after the flight.

High labour intensity of crew members causes premature loss of health and, as a result, loss of profession. 60 - 70% of crew members have the initial signs of chronic diseases. This can reduce the reliability of the crew in emergency and abnormal conditions and requires preventive and preventive measures.

The participants agreed to contribute to the Knowledge Brief that would be based on the reports of the working group of the UITP

Additional information on the working group's activities can be obtained from UITP office in Moscow or from Valeria ARKHANGELSKAYA, Secretary of the working group.